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Urinary calculi

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Urinary calculi are solid particles like stones in the urinary system. They can develop anywhere along your urinary tract, which consists of these parts:





Urinary calculi may remain within the renal parenchyma or renal collecting system or be passed into the ureter and bladder. During passage, calculi may irritate the ureter and may become lodged, obstructing urine flow and causing hydroureter and sometimes hydronephrosis. Common areas of lodgment include the following:


Distal ureter at the level of the iliac vessels

Ureterovesical junction

Symptoms are:

Large calculi remaining in the renal parenchyma or renal collecting system are often asymptomatic unless they cause obstruction and/or infection.

Severe pain, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, usually occurs when calculi pass into the ureter and cause acute obstruction

Sometimes gross hematuria also occurs.

Based on symptoms and signs following diagnosis methods are available:

Clinical differential diagnosis



Determination of calculus composition

With most of these disorders, urinary symptoms are uncommon and other symptoms may suggest which organ system is actually involved,  for example: vaginal discharge or bleeding in pelvic disorders among females.

Treatments available are:


Facilitate calculus passage, eg, with alpha-receptor blockers such as tamsulosin (described as medical expulsive therapy)

For persistent or infection-causing calculi, complete removal using primarily endoscopic techniques

Taking preventive measures like eating proper food,  avoiding pollution,  having good sanitation and other doctor advised measures will help prevent this condition.

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